## Wednesday, 5 March 2014

### Effective Way to test Number is Prime or Not .

Prime number is one of most frequent thing we face in programming  Problems . But you know most time we use algorithm to test number is prime or not is is very slow if number is too big . In other word our algorithm is not efficient .

But little bit change to that algorithm make it more efficient .

#### Prime number :

A integer that has no integral factor except 1 and itself . ( 1 is not treated as prime number )

Now normal Way to solve this is make a for loop from 2 to N/2 & check divisibility for each integer .

Take a look of C code :

``````// check given no is prime or NOt

#include<stdio.h>

void check_prime(int N)
{
int i,flag=0;
for(i=2;i<=N/2;i++) //check for each num between 2 & n/2
{
if(N%i == 0)
{
flag=1;
break;
}
}
if(flag==0)
printf("\nPrime");
else
printf("\n NOt Prime");
}

void main()
{
int N;
printf("Enter No to Check : ");
scanf("%d",&N);

check_prime(N); //call function to check
}``````

#### OutPut :

Now lets Modify above Program to increase its speed . i.e. number of steps .

Let number Be N
and let say it is Not prime number than N = a*b where a and b less than or equal to squre  root of N
i.e. a,b <= sqrt(N)   (Why ...???) this is basic mathematics .. So you have to interpret it by yourself .if you find out comment here with your reason .

Now you can modify above code i.e check its divisibility in range 2 to sqrt(N).

#### C code :

``````// check given no is prime or NOt

#include<stdio.h>
#include<math.h>

void ch_prime(int N)
{
int i,sq,flag=0;
sq=sqrt(N);      //finding squire root
for(i=2;i<=sq;i++)
{
if(N%i == 0)
{
flag=1;
break;
}
}
if(flag==0)
printf("\nPrime");
else
printf("\n NOt Prime");
}

void main()
{
int N;
printf("Enter No to Check : ");
scanf("%d",&N);

ch_prime(N);
}``````

Now lets further optimize it .

Now think if a number can't divide by 2 then it must not be divided by any even number .
so you don't have to check at even number . it reduce your number of steps by half .
this is really great achievement .

Now its time to implement it .

#### C Code :

1. // check given no is prime or NOt
2. /*
3. main concept :
4. we have to check its divisibility from 2 to sqrt(N)
5. &&
6. if a number is not divisible by 2 than it is also not divisible by even numbers
7. */
8.
9.
10. #include<stdio.h>
11. #include<math.h>
12.
13. void check_prime(int N)
14. {
15.       int i,sq,flag=0;
16.       sq=sqrt(N);
17.       if(N%2 != 0)  //if number is not divisible by 2
18.       {
19.           for(i=3;i<=sq;i=i+2) //then start from three & increment by 2 till sqrt(N)
20.           {                    // divide by above term to check it is prime
21.               if(N%== 0)
22.                   {
23.                       flag=1;  //flag counter =1 conform it is not prime
24.                       break;
25.                   }
26.         }
27.     }
28.     else
29.        flag=1;
30.
31.    if(flag==0)
32.     printf("\nPrime");
33.    else
34.      printf("\n NOt Prime");
35.
36. }
37.
38. void main()
39. {
40.     int N;
41.     printf("Enter No to Check : ");
42.     scanf("%d",&N);
43.
44.     if(N==2)     // 1 & 2 is treated as special case
45.       printf("\nPrime Number");
46.     else if(N==1)
47.            printf("\nNot a Prime Number");
48.     else
49.      check_prime(N);
50. }

Can we further optimise it . yes we can .
similar to concept of even number now think if number is not divisible by 3 then also not divisible by multiple of three . similar concept is applicable for 5,7 and so on ..
but till Now I can't find efficient way to implement this
If you found please share with us .
thanks Have a Nice day !!!

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